A major difficulty with knowledge based on personal sensory experience is that it:
is incomplete
Knowledge arrived at by consensus or majority agreement
is often in error
Knowledge that is based on expert opinion
is limited by the expert’s experience
Knowledge based on logical reasoning
has specific prerequisites
The essential characteristic of the scientific method is
its public nature
An investigator wishes to determine how much coverage current high school history texts give to the contributions of African Americans to our history. She should conduct
content analysis
Mixed-method research refers to use of both
quantitaive and qualitative methods
“Critical researchers” emphasize the importance of all the following except
weak methodology
Which of the following factors shoul dnot influence the decisions when on eis selecting a topic or problem for research?
Will I be able to prove that my previously held beliefs are true?
In conducting research, which of the following steps should generally be taken first?
Formulation of the problem to be solved
Operational definitions are encouraged in research in order to
Make terms used in a study as explicit as possible
“In this study interest in science is represented by the sciences area score on the Occupational Interest Inventory, Grades 7 to Adult, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1956.” The preceding statement illustrates a(n):
Operational definition
Which of the following statements can be checked by means of scientific inquiry?
The accident rate of driver education graduates is lower than the accident rate of those who have not had driver education.
Which of the following definitions of the term “aggressive behavior” is operational?
An “aggression” score on the XYZ behavior scale
A constitutive definition is one that
Is obtained from a published dictionary
Whether or not a given study has the possibility of causing harm to participants
must be determined by a review board established by the sponsoring institution
Ethical behavior of educational researchers is guided primarily by
ethical standards established by the profession
Confidentiality requires that
access to collected data be limited to research staff
Which of the following groups are not protected by laws governing privileged communication?
Research with minors presents special ethical concerns because
they are less likely to understand what is being asked of them
“Students taught first aid by programmed instruction will achieve at a higher level than those taught first aid by the transitional method.” The independent variable in this hypothesis is
method of instruction. In this example the dependent variable is- Level of achievement
Statements or pedictions that are tested by collecting and analyzing objective evidence are called
“Learning disable children who attend publich school programs will show greater increases in social competence than will comparable child who attend institutional programs.” This is an example of a(n)
directional research hypothesis
Empirically testing a hypothesis is the process of determining
if systematic observation confirms it
A research report states that Group A was exposed to a new teaching method and Group B was exposed to a traditional method. At the end of a four-month period, each group was given the same achievement test. Group A had a mean score that was higher than the mean score for Group B. The dependent variable in this study was the
achievement scores of the students
When a hypothesis is confirmend, one should conclude that
the data provide evidence favorable to the belief that the hypothesis is true
If a researcher studies the effects of frustration on the frequency of aggressive behavior, degree of frustration should be regarded as a(n)
independent variable
The dependent variable is so called because
scores on this variable are hypothesized to depend on, and vary with, the value of the independent variable
Characteristics of persons or things that can assume different values are called
A categorical variable is one that varies in
type but not amount
An outcome variable is most similar to a(tiven)
dependent variable
In a study comparing methods of improving critical thinking, what type of variable is “critical thinking”
Dependent, outcome, quantitative
Which of the following is a quantitative variable?
Which of the follwoing is a nondirectional hypotheses?
Boys and girls will differ in their attitudes towards school
The first step in selecting a sample should be to
define the population
Generalizing research findings from a sample to the population is most likely to be justifiable when
a large random sample is used
A researcher drew a sample by selecting every tenth name in a telephone directory. Which of the following types of sampling did she use?
The most important consideration in selecting a sample is that the sample be
representative of the population
In random sampling, it is necessarily true that
each sampling unit has an equal probability of being selected
The entire collection of people, elements, scores, or measurements to which conclusions are applied is
a population
The validity of generalizations based on a sample depends on the
representativeness of the sample
The sampel in a particular study is the
group on which data are obtained
The accessible population in a study is the
group from which one selects a sample
The most imporant feature of a table of random numbers is that
there is no pattern to the numbers in the table
Two stage cluster sampling refers to
selecting groups and then individuals
Random sampling is least effective when
the sample size is very small
A stratified random sample is used when
the researcher wants to guarantee representativeness on specified variables
When a convenience sample is used, the researcher should not
generalize to a specified population
The term “external validity” includes
population generalizability and ecological generalizability
Ecological generalizability includes the
characterstics of the environment
In reading a table of random numbers, the researcher begins
with any number
The best way to obtain a representative sample is to
use a large simple random sample
In which of the follwoing would one be most likely to find a professional evaluation of a particular commercial standardized test?
The Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook
The most serious limitation in the use of mailed questionnaires in research is in connection with
obtaining responses
Most widely used standardized achievement tests are useful because
they have been carefully prepared, tried out, and refined through research
One advantage that the interview has over the questionnaire is that it
is more useful in probing for underlying feelings and attitudes
Rapport is most essential when which data-gathering device is used?
Which is an example of a subject-completed instrument?
Attitude scale
How is “instrumentation” different from “instrument”?
Instrumentation includes the way in which the instrument is used
Which of the following is the best synonym for validity?
Which of the following is the best synonym for reliability?
The use of previously developed instruments in a study is desirable because
instrument development is a complex undertaking
A previously existing instrument
may be inadequate for purposes of the researcher
A performance checklist
minimizes observer judgment
Aptitude tests differ from ability tests primarily in their
Which of these could be used as an aptitude test
The Stanford Achievement Test
Which of the following would be the least appropriate variable to assess with an observational tally sheet?
Critical thinking
A score repored as 17-6 is most likely
an age equivalent score
A commonsense definition of validity refers to an instrument that
measures what it is supposed to measure
Reliability of measurement is concerned with
An indipensable quality required for a good measuring instrument is that it produce evidence that is
The validity of scores on a teacher-made classroom achievment test should be appraised in terms of
its relation to the content and objectives of the course
The longer the time interval between a predition and the event to be predicted, the
smaller are the chances of making a good prediction
An arithmetic test is given twice within a few days to a student. The higest possible score is 40. He receives a score of 35 the first time and a score of 18 the second time. If similarly varying results are obtained with other students, the test is probably
Which of the following is the best way to control for the unwanted influence of maturation processes in an experiment?
Use a control group
Which of the following is a question of internal validity in experimental research?
Has maturation influenced the dependent variable
Subjects performing well merely because they are being observed (and not necessarily becasue of any effect of treatment) are considered to be under the influence of
The Hawthone effect
The threate of “subject characteristics” refers to differences among subjects on
an extraneous variable
Loss of subjects in a threat to internal validity because
those “lost” may differ on the dependent variable from the remainder
Which of the following is not an example of a possible location threat?
All tests are given in a noisy gym
Instrument decay refers to the possibility that
the instrument is systematically alered during the course of a study
Loss of subjects is a serious threat to internal validity in a experimental study if
more are lost from one group
When the same questionnaire is scored for opinions on two or more topics, a threat to internal validity may exhists because
respondentns may psych out the researcher’s hypothesis
Which of teh following illustrates an attitudinal threat to internal validity?
Students resented not receiving the new curriculum
A regression threat to internal validity refers to the fact that
groups selected at extremes will score closer to the average on retesting
Which threat would not apply to a correlational study?
The maximum possible correspondence or correlation between two variables is represented by a Pearson product-moment coefficient of
Which one of theses correlation coefficients has the least predictive value?
The kind of graph on which one would determine the frequency of a given score by noting the height of the line is calle a
frequency polygon
If there are only a few very high scores and a large number of closely bunched low scores ina distribution
the mean will be higher than the median
When scores are grouped in constructing a frequency polygon or scatterplot
all intervals must be the same size
A z-score is obtained by
subtracting the mean from the score and dividing the standard deviation
In a normal distribution, +-1 z-score includes about
70% of the scores
The median is equal to
the 50th percentile
The standard deviation tells how
much the scores in a distrbution are spread out
An advantage of z-scores is that
scores on different instruments can be compared
a scatterplot can be used only when
both variables are quantitative
Crossbreak tables are used when
both variables are categorical
A relationship is show in a crossbreak table by
a large discrepancy between actual and expected frequencies
the purpose of inferential statistics is
to permit inferences from sample results to a population
An assumption basic to all inferential statistics is
the sample must be randomly selected
A sampling distribution is
a frequency polygon made from sample values
A disadvantage of noparametric inference tests is that they
are less likely to show statistical signifiance than parapmetric tests
The magnitude of Chi-Square depends on the
differences between observed and expected frequencies
Why are control groups necessary in certain experiments?
to make it easier to estimate the influence of the independent variable
One differnce between the experimental and other methods in research has to do with the
control of variables
The feature that best characterizes experimental research is
systematic variation of conditions
Experimental research is the most powerful research method for
determining cause and effect
A major problem with experimental research in education is that
the researcher may not have sufficient control over treatment
Which is not a serious threat in a one group pretest posttest design?
Characterstics of subjects
An important difference between experimental and noexperimental research is that the independent variable in experimental reserach is
A researcher would be liekly to use matching in a randomized posttest control group design
if the number in each treatment group is small
A researcher would use matching rather than random assignment when
random assignment is impossible
Which of the following is not possible in causal-comparative research?
Random assignment to treatment or comparision groups
One way of providing some control in a causal-comparative research design is to
match the subjects in the groups to be compared on as many extraneous variables as possible
Causal comparative research is so named because
it is a way of exploring cause effect relationships
The causal comparative and experimental methods are similar in that both
involve at least on categorical variable
The appropriate statistical procedure when all variables are categorical is the
crossbreak table
In a causal comparative study, comparision group
are already in existence
The major threat to internal validity in a causal comparative study is
subject characteristics
A correlation coefficient of -0.79 between time spent in typing practice and the number of typing errors means that
as time spent in practice increased, errors tended to decrease
In which of the following would be most likely to find a correlation coefficient of zero or close to zero
Show sizes of adult males correlated with their salaries
A researcher studied the relationship between the use of alcohol and grades in college. She found that a larger proportion of drinkers received low grades than did teetotalers. She should conclude that
drinking habits and grades are related
Correlational reserach differs from experimental research in that
there is no manipulation of variables
A regression line is used to
estimate the score on one variable from the score on another variable
Multiple regression is a technique for
predicting a vriterion from two or more predictors in combination
Survey research is concerned primarily with
reporting existing conditions
The purpose of most survey is to
describe the characteristic of a population
In a panel study, the researcher obtains information from
the same sample at different points in time
The primary advantages of the interview are
high response rate and opportunity for clarification of questions
An advantage of multiple choice questions as compared to open ended questions is that they
are easier to score
A cover letter should accomplish all of the following except
clarifying the researchers hypothesis
Interviewers should trained to do all of the follwoing except
show their own views regarding the study
A basic differnce between positivism and its critics pretains to
the nature of reality
Which of teh following is more likely to be found in a qualitative study compared to other methods?
A description of the patterns of interaction among the members of a group
Hypotheses in qualitative research usually
emerge as the study progresses
In qualitative reserach, process is seen as
an important aspect to be investigated
The unique perceptions of individuals are most likely to be viewed by qualitative researchers as
an essential part of an investigation
Data analysis in qualitative studies, compared to quantitative studies is
inductive rather than deductive
Qualitative researchers prefer natural settings because
they believe context is crucial
Generalization in qualitative researchh is
different from quantitative reserach
Advantages of Mixed Method studies are
comprehnensiveness and thoroughness
Essential features of a good action research study are
local focus and plan of action
“Stakeholders” in action research are those who
are affected by the problem
Which is not a criticism of participatory action research
It cannot provide useful knowledge
Action reserach and formal research differ in
Generalization in action research is best accomplished by
Action reserach and “formal” research are similar in
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