Choices, US Role in a Changing World, Part 1, 2 & 3 (combined)

values
The ideas, beliefs, and attitudes about what is important that help guide the way a person lives.

independence
Freedom from the control, influence, support, aid, or the like, of others.

colonialism
The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.

annexation
The incorporation of new territory into the domain of a city, country, or state.

nationalist
A member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.

self-rule
when a country, a part of a country, or a nation chooses its own government and controls its own activities.

neutrality
policy of supporting neither side in a war.

international cooperation
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.

territorial integrity
Nations respect one another’s borders and they do not try to gain another country’s territory by force.

imperialism
Extending the rule of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.

communism
A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

fascism
A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.

international order
Establishing, adhering to and enforcing international law through organizations like the world court of justice and international criminal court can hasten cooperation and peace between nations

nuclear weapons
Explosive devices whose destructive potential derives from the release of energy that accompanies the splitting or combining of atomic nuclei.

containment
A policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances.

deterrence
The development of military power to deter, or prevent, an attack

democracy
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives

globalization
the process in which people, ideas and goods spread throughout the world, spurring more interaction and integration between the world’s cultures, governments and economies.

free market capitalism
economic system in which individuals decide for themselves what to produce and sell.

interdependence
A relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services

Americanization
the influence American culture has on the culture of other countries, such as their popular culture, media, cuisine, technology, business practices, or political techniques.

WTO (World Trade Organization)
the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)

bilateral
involving two parties or sides

GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period.

employment security
the protection of workers against fluctuations in earned income as a result of job loss

inequality
difference in size, degree, circumstances, etc.; lack of equality

per capita income
average income earned per person in a given area

HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus)
a virus that attacks the immune system, the body’s natural defense system

malaria
A disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood.

malnutrition
Lack of nutrition caused by faulty or inadequate diet.

climate change
Any significant change in measures of climate, such as temperature, precipitation, or wind, lasting for an extended period of a decade or longer.

UN (United Nations)
An international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries.

diplomacy
the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically by a country’s representatives abroad.

political instability
A situation in which the government and economy of a country may fall or collapse.

international governmental organization
an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states)

The World Bank
an organization whose main aims are to provide aid and advice to developing countries, as well as reducing poverty levels and encouraging and safeguarding international investment.

democratization
The process of establishing representative and accountable forms of government led by popularly elected officials.

NGO (non-governmental organization)
any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group which is organized on a local, national or international level.

EU (European union)
Group on 28 European nations that acts as a cohesive economic and political block.

rule of law
a concept that those who govern are bound by the laws; no one is above the law

genocide
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group

humanitarian intervention
a state’s use of “military force against another state when the chief publicly declared aim of that military action is ending human-rights violations being perpetrated by the state against which it is directed.”

human rights violations
Violations against people’s civil rights and liberties by governments

rogue states
a nation or state regarded as breaking international law and posing a threat to the security of other nations

unilateral
one-sided

regime
a government in power; a form or system of rule or management; a period of rule

collective security
system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all

multilateral
many-sided

WMD (Weapon of Mass Destruction)
a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere.

I.S.I.S. (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)
an extremist militant group that rules by strict Islamist (Wahhabi/Salafi) law.

ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile)
a guided missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery.

proliferation
rapid growth; spread; multiplication

hair-trigger
a trigger of a firearm set for release at the slightest pressure; liable to change suddenly and violently

economic sanctions
Boycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies.

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